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The New Testament of Pastalie (新約パスタリエ, shin'yaku pasutarie?) is a dialect of the Hymmnos language that was created for exclusive use with Infel Phira during its construction around year 3300 AD. Only Reyvateils connected to Infel Phira, referred to as Infel Phira Dependents (IPDs), can utilize the New Testament natively. For a more general introduction to the Hymmnos language and its history, please check the Hymmnos Language article.

Grammar[]

Note: It is advisable to first read the article covering the grammar of Standard Hymmnos in its entirety before proceeding with the grammar for the New Testament of Pastalie, as it will simplify the process of understanding how its sentences are structured.

Word Usage[]

Words from Standard Hymmnos can be used in Pastalie sentences thanks to the emulation capabilities provided by Infel Phira, but if a word with similar meaning exists in the Pastalie vocabulary, then it's more commonly used due to the fact that Infel Phira requires additional processing power and time to use words from other dialects, thus reducing the overall execution efficiency and power of the song.

For example: rawah (rawah) (from Pastalie Hymmnos) and frawr (frawr) (from Standard Hymmnos) both mean "flower", but rawah is used more often in Pastalie sentences.

On the other hand, Pastalie words cannot be used in Standard Hymmnos sentences, except if it's done in dual-server Songs with the EXEC_over.METHOD or EXEC_with.METHOD prefixes. This is because neither Ar tonelico or Harvestasha have any of the Pastalie words registered in their respective Hymmnoservers, nor are they equipped with the algorithms and processes required to decipher the unique grammar functions possessed by the dialect.

Additionally, the grammars of both types of Hymmnos cannot be combined even in dual-server Songs, so if a sentence features Standard Emotion Sounds, it cannot feature the Pastalie Emotion Verbs and special nouns, and in that same way, sentences that use Emotion Verbs and the Pastalie nouns cannot use Standard Emotion Sounds.

Numerals[]

Although the New Testament of Pastalie uses the same numbers found in Standard Hymmnos, it also has a unique way of stating numbers depending on their digit position.

As an example, while the pronunciation for 1001 in Standard Hymmnos would be きく・のい (kiku noi - /kik/-/noi/), the only example of this number being Sung in a New Testament of Pastalie records its pronunciation as のいふぇふら・のい (noifefura noi - /noiɸeɸɾa/-/noi/).

Similarly, there is a recorded pronunciation for 5100 in the Hymmnos Spell used for Downloading Hymn Crystals from Infel Phira, which is given as ヴぃらふぇふら・のいどりら (virafefura noidorira - /viɾaɸeɸɾa/-/noidɾiɾa/), which in Standard Hymmnos would be rendered as ヴぃらきぃ・へく (virakii hec - /biɾakiː/-/hek/).

Therefore, this means that adding the ら (ra - /ɾa/) termination to a number would serve to indicate it is to be placed at the nth digit from the right, unlike normal numbers. Similarly, all numbers higher than ten would go unused when this system is employed.

Examples:

1,000,000 -> のい・へぷとら Nnoi Heptra (noi heputora - /noi/-/heptɾa/)
128,493 -> のい・いくさら・じヴぃらら・おくたふぇふら・ふぇふどりら・ねいじら・どり Nnoi Ixara Zivirara Oktafefra Fefdrira Neizira Dri (noi ikusara jivirara okutafefura fefudorira neijira dori - /noi/-/iksaɾa/-/dzibiɾaɾa/-/oktaɸeɸɾa/-ɸeɸdɾiɾa/-/neidziɾa/-/dɾi/)

However, it must be mentioned that the case use for the numbering systems is unknown at the moment, as there are also cases of New Testament of Pastalie Songs employing the Standard Hymmnos numbering system.

Basic Structure[]

Although the New Testament of Pastalie possesses the same basic S-V-O structure that Standard Hymmnos has, the dialect was designed with an emphasis on efficiency and with the Reyvateils' own technical specifications in mind, making it into an extreme version of the Ancient Metafalss Note in that it compresses large amounts of meaning and feelings in a short, concise manner, without regard for its words' ease of use or pronunciation.

Therefore, the most basic element in a New Testament of Pastalie sentence is the Emotion Verb (想音動詞, souon doushi?), of which a single one can be enough to form a sentence on its own.

Structure with an Implied Object[]

Similarly to Standard Hymmnos, the New Testament of Pastalie assumes that the subject of the sentence is "I" by default, unless explicitly stated otherwise, which is the reason why it is possible to construct grammatically-valid and coherent sentences with a single word in this dialect.

Let us take a look at the following example:

fEwErYEn

fEwErYEn

/.

/.

Emotion Verb Execution Element

In this case, the example is a complete sentence, pronounced フェウェリェン (feweryen - /ɸeweɾʲeɴ/) and meaning "I will lovingly and for your happiness, embrace you."

Now, let us further break down the elements that make up this sentence: an Emotion Verb is constructed by an alternation of lowercase and uppercase letters, where the uppercase ones are [Emotion Sounds] and the lowercase ones form the [Verb]. We will leave the explanation for the exact functioning of this grammar structure for the next section, but suffice to say it is due to it that it is possible to describe complex feelings and meanings in a succinct manner. As for how it implicitly refers to an object, it is done through the Emotion Sounds, which have three possible levels:

  • The speaker themselves.
  • An individual indicated by the sentence's context.
  • The world around the speaker.

If the sentence's object fulfills any of these three conditions, it can be safely omitted from the sentence without losing any important information, as the Emotion Vowels inserted in the Verb will still carry it implicitly in them.

In terms of punctuation, all New Testament of Pastalie sentences will end in /. (/.), which serves as an order for Infel Phira to execute the sentence as a source for Song Magic. However, it is merely done as a method to avoid confusion with the [Bank Periods] found in the Emotion Verbs, which will also be discussed later.

Therefore, while it is possible to terminate a sentence with an interrogation (?) or exclamation (!) mark, doing so will render the sentence as not suitable for the execution of Song Magic and will only serve to express or reinforce the Singer's own feelings.

Structure with Explicit Objects[]

If the object is not evident from context or does not fall into the classifications given above, it will be necessary to state it explicitly.

Below we can see an example of how this is done:

fEwErYEn

fEwErYEn

Luca

Luca

/.

/.

Pronounced フェウェリェン ルカ (feweryen ruka - /ɸeweɾʲeɴ lɯka/) and meaning "I lovingly embrace Luca."
When a proper noun is used, it must be placed right after the Emotion Verb, like it was done in the example above, and it's in the same way that they are utilized in other languages such as Standard Hymmnos or English, keeping in with the [V-O] structure.

Emotion Verbs[]

Contrary to most languages, Emotion Verbs are words that can change at the word structure level, and are the most fundamental element that must be understood in order to make sense from it.

As explained in the previous sections, an Emotion Verb is formed by two separate elements: the Base Verb (基礎単語, kiso tango?) and the Emotion Vowels (想母音, souboin?). For example: the Emotion Verb [hYAmmrA] is formed by the Base Verb [h.m.m.r.] and the Emotion Vowels [YA and A]. The Base Verb is generally written in lowercase letters, while the Emotion Vowels are written in uppercase.

hYAmmrA

ヒャンムラ (hyanmura - /çaNmɾa/)
(I will put all my strength into Singing for you.)

↓Disassembled↓
[Base Verb]

h.m.m.r.
h.m.m.r.

[Emotion Vowels]

1: YA 2: None 3: None 4: A
1: YA 2: None 3: None 4: A

The following subsections will explain in more detail the Base Verbs and the Emotion Vowels.

Base Verbs[]

We will use the following example to simplify the explanation of how Base Verbs work.

[h.m.m.r.] Meaning: to Sing

One of the characteristics unique to Emotion Verbs are the Bank Periods (バンクピリオド, bankupiriodo?) that are placed between their component letters. Each Period is given a name beginning from Period 1, in ascending order from left to right. As can be seen in the "h.m.m.r." example, it has a total of four Bank Periods, with the potency and priority of the Emotion Vowels increasing more the lower the Period number is, or in other words, the further to the left (or closest to the word's beginning) an Emotion Vowel is placed in the Emotion Verb.

Basically, by placing Emotion Vowels in the gaps between the letters that compose the Base Verbs, the Base Verbs are endowed with the meanings and powers these Vowels contain, becoming Emotion Verbs. And while the above examples showed Base Verbs composed solely by consonants, it must be noted that there are several that include vowels in their composition, such as a.u.k. (a.u.k.) and there is no problem in having Emotion Vowels placed before or after the ones the Base Verb includes by default.

Emotion Vowels[]

Emotion Vowels are represented by the uppercase letters that form part of an Emotion Verb.
They are also the element in which the Singer defines what the Verb's target will be and what emotions will be contained in the Verb's action. As explained previously, the Emotion Vowels are placed in the Bank Periods that compose the Base Verbs.

Bank Periods may also be left unused, in which case their corresponding periods will be erased after the Emotion Vowels are written into the used Periods, which will maintain the same priority and order as if the empty ones had been filled. However, if no Bank Period is used, the Base Verb must be written in its dictionary (unmodified) form with all its periods intact.

Emotion Vowels have a total of three different Groups that can be designated as possible targets. The three Groups are divided in the following manner:

  • Level 1: Emotions the Singer directs inwardly toward themselves (expression of one's own emotions)
  • Level 2: Emotions directed to a second person (expression of emotions for a second person)
  • Level 3: Emotions directed toward the entirety of the Singer's surroundings (expression of emotions for this place)

The levels are just used to establish distinction between the Groups and don't mean that any of the Emotion Vowels is more potent or weaker than the others: the distinction between their power and priority depends exclusively on the Bank Period they are placed in.

The following tables compile the meanings (or feelings) each of the Emotion Vowels hold:

Level 1 Emotion Vowels: Inward Emotions[]
Vowel Pronunciation Meaning
A

A

あ (a)

/a/

Power, focus, concentration, resolve, with one's utmost efforts
I

I

い (i)

/i/

Pain, agony, desire to escape or run away, terror, fear
U

U

う (u)

/ɯ/

Sadness, sorrow, grief, worry, anxiety, anguish
E

E

え (e)

/e/

Joy, delight, happiness, bliss, pleasure
O

O

お (o)

/o/

Rage, wrath, aggressiveness, cursing, malice
N

N

ん (n)

/ɴ/

Nothing, absentmindedness, relaxation, neutrality
Level 2 Emotion Vowels: Second Party-directed Emotions[]
Vowel Pronunciation Meaning
YA

YA

や (ya)

/ja/

Respect, appreciation, consideration for the second party
YI

YI

いぇい (yei)

/jei/

Die!, Collapse!, Suffer! Be Terrified!
YU

YU

ゆ (yu)

/jɯ/

Be Sad!, Be Anxious!
YE

YE

いぇ (ye)

/je/

Rejoice, be happy, be glad
YO

YO

よ (yo)

/jo/

Be angry!, Bare your fangs!, Go crazy!, Be ferocious!
YN

YN

ぅん (un)

/әɴ/

Calm down, be at peace, relax
Level 3 Emotion Vowels: Surroundings-directed Emotions[]
Vowel Pronunciation Meaning
LYA

LYA

りゃ (rya)

/lʲa/

Consideration for the whole place, selflessness
LYI

LYI

りぇい (ryei)

/lʲei/

Be Annihilated!, Be Destroyed!, Collapse!
LYU

LYU

りゅ (ryu)

/lʲɯ/

Be Tense!, Be Unstable!
LYE

LYE

りぇ (rye)

/lʲe/

Be happy, be glad, be abundant
LYO

LYO

りょ (ryo)

/lʲo/

Fight!, Become a Scene of Bloodshed!
LYN

LYN

りん (rin)

/liɴ/

Become silent, become peaceful, calm down

Nouns[]

As stated previously, Infel Phira is compatible with and provides support for all other Hymmnos dialects thanks to its emulation capabilities. However, it is designed to work more efficiently when nouns developed exclusively for the New Testament of Pastalie are used instead.
One such example of this optimization can be found at the start of its nouns, which can be seen in the following example:

gasar gasar (がさる (gasar - /gasaɾ/): Stuffed doll

New Testament of Pastalie Noun

Form 1 Agasar Agasar

(あがさる (agasar - /agasaɾ/)

My stuffed doll
Form 2 YAgasar YAgasar

(やがさる (yagasar - /jagasaɾ/)

Your (sin. or pl.) stuffed doll
Form 3 LYAgasar LYAgasar

(りゃがさる (ryagasar - /lʲagasaɾ/)

This place's (public) stuffed doll
Form 4 Agasar_chroche Agasar_chroche

(あがさる くろーしぇ (agasar kurooshe - /agasaɾ/-/kɾoːɕe/)

Cloche's※ stuffed doll

※The difference in the way the name is written is due to it being written differently in the Japanese and localized versions. They will be treated as if they were written the same.

As it should be apparent, this appending of the Emotion Vowels acts the same way as a possessive marker, such as an "of" postposition or "'s" contraction, in addition to defining the feelings for the noun in question.

Below we can see a summarized version of this mechanism with Emotion Vowels ending in the letter A:

Owner Expressed Form My A~
Your YA~
This place's LYA~
OO's A~_OO

※If the noun begins with the same vowel sound used to end the Emotion Vowel selected, that vowel sound will become a long vowel. For example, [arhou (アーフー (aahuu - /aːɸɯː/))] would become [Aarhou (アーーフー (aaahuu - /aːːɸɯː/]) when preceded by an A Emotion Vowel.

Another example combining Emotion Vowels and New Testament of Pastalie nouns can be seen below:

wYEsA Agasar_luca/.
wYEsA Agasar_luca/.
(うぃえさ あがさる るか) (wiesa agasaru ruka - /wiesa/-/agasaɾ/-/luka/)
(I will) gladly present you with the stuffed doll belonging to Luca.

Long Sentences[]

The longer a sentence becomes, the more the New Testament of Pastalie becomes similar to Standard Hymmnos.
In simple terms, longer sentences would utilize the following structures, among others:

[Emotion Verb]-[Object]-[Object] (VOO)
[Emotion Verb]-[Object]-[Compound] (VOC)
[Emotion Verb]-[Compound] (VC)

It would basically become similar to English and Standard Hymmnos. However, given that the New Testament of Pastalie has as its greatest feature the optimization of sentences by combining [Emotion Sounds, Verbs and Objects] into a single word, this optimization lessens the more compounds are added into a single sentence. Therefore, it is more practical to condense long phrases using the "Function" grammar feature. Please read further below for more details on how the Function works.

Subject Definer[]

The New Testament of Pastalie features a Subject Definer much like Standard Hymmnos does.
However, it defines it as [one's current feelings about the subject of the sentence]. When the Subject Definer is used, the sentence takes the following structure:

[x.]-[rre]-[Subject]-[Emotion Verb]-[Object]...

The "x." at the start has a Bank Period, which the Singer can use to indicate their feelings about the sentence, although it may also be used to indicate the feelings they perceive from a second party or their surroundings regarding the subject of the sentence. And similarly to Standard Hymmnos, the word placed immediately after the [rre] becomes the sentence's subject.

xE rre chroche cEzE hymmnos/.
xE rre chroche cEzE hymmnos/.
(ぜ [ルル]れ くろーしぇ しぇぜ ひゅむのす) (ze [ruru]re kurooshe sheze hyumunosu - /dze/-/re/-/kɾoːɕe/-/ɕedze/-/çəmnos/)
Cloche will become a Song (and this makes me happy).

However, the usage of the "rre" is not necessary if the word after it is a personal pronoun such as "he", "she", "you" or "they", much like it is done in Standard Hymmnos. These pronouns are unchanged between dialects, so please consult the table for them in the Standard Hymmnos grammar guide for more details. Below is an example of how the "rre" is omitted in sentences where a personal pronoun is the subject:

xI harr cEzE hymmnos/.
xI harr cEzE hymmnos/.
(じ はるる しぇぜ ひゅむのす)(ji haruru sheze hyumunosu - /dzi/-/har/-/ɕedze/-/çəmnos/)
She will become a Song (and this makes me feel envious).

While there are no concrete details for what the meanings of the Level 2 and Level 3 Emotion Vowels are when they are used in the Subject Definer, below is a summary of the meanings of the Level 1 Emotion Vowels in this context:

Vowel Pronunciation Meaning
A あ (a)

/a/

Neutrality
I い (i)

/i/

Jealousy
U う (u)

/ɯ/

Concern, sadness
E え (e)

/e/

Happiness
O お (o)

/o/

Anger, hatred
N ん (n)

/ɴ/

Indifference, reluctance

Grammatical Flexibility[]

The New Testament of Pastalie is also imbued with additional grammar functions to expand its efficiency and broaden the feelings it can convey. Below is a listing for them:

Passive Voice[]

This is done by adding eh eh (えっ (eh - /eʔ/)) at the end of an Emotion Verb.

fEwErYEn
fEwErYEn
ふぇうぇりぇん (feweryen - /ɸeweɾʲeɴ/)
I lovingly embrace you. (Active Voice)

When using passive voice, it changes to the following:

fEwErYEneh
fEwErYEneh
ふぇうぇりぇんえっ (feweryen'eh - /ɸeweɾʲeɴʔeʔ/)
I am lovingly embraced by you. (Passive Voice)
Emphasis[]

Adding the Subject Definer "rre" to a pronoun serves to further emphasize it as the subject of the sentence.

xE rre yorra cEzE hymmnos/.
xE rre yorra cEzE hymmnos/.
ぜ [ルル]れ ヨ[ルル]ラ しぇぜ ひゅむのす (ze rre yorra sheze hyumunosu - /dze/-/re/-/yora/-/ɕedze/-/çəmnos/)
YOU ALL will become a Song (and I feel quite happy about it).
Negation[]

The preposition zz zz (ず (zu - /dzә/)) is used to negate a sentence. This can be applied both to nouns and Emotion Verbs, and it will negate the word following it.

zz rUfImeh/.
zz rUfImeh/.
ず るふぃめっ (zu rufimeh - /dzә/-/rɯɸimeʔ/)
I still can't see it.
Desiderative Form[]

Adding aye aye (あぃえ aye - /aje/) at the end of an Emotion Verb makes it into desiderative form, or an expression of wanting to do something.

Example:

sLYAsYAwYE/.
sLYAsYAwYE/.
すりゃすやうぃえ (suryasuyawye - /sәlʲasәjaɯʲe/)
That is what I earnestly will convey to everyone.
sLYAsYAwYEaye/.
sLYAsYAwYEaye/.
すりゃすやうぃえあぃえ (suryasuyawyeaye - /sәlʲasәjaɯʲeaje/)
That is what I earnestly wish to convey to everyone.
Usage of Emotion Verbs as Nouns[]

By leaving all periods in an Emotion Verb blank, it is possible to treat it as a gerund, or in other words, a noun.

aIuUkA zess pop v.a en d.z./.
aIuUkA zess pop v.a en d.z./.
あいうーか ぜす ポプ ヴァ えん ドゥズ (aiuuka zesu popu va en duzu - /aiɯːka/-/dzes/-/pop/-/ba/-/eɴ/-/dədzə/)
I am like the bubbles that disappear just as they are born.
Quotation[]

Surrounding a phrase between ":/" (:/) and ":/" (:/) is equivalent to marking it with quotation marks in New Testament of Pastalie.

Advanced Grammar Rules[]

Function[]

This is a grammar mechanism in which a single word or short phrase can be defined as a short-hand for a long sentence. In simple terms, it is the coining of entirely made-up words that only exist for the duration of the specific Song they were made for. This is done in the following manner:

[New Word] -> [Hymmnos sentence]

Therefore, once the Function's word has been defined, it will act as a stand-in for the sentence it was defined as until the Song ends. The "->" is pronounced as ぱす (pasu - /pas/).

Example:

ishikawa -> jYOzAt METHOD_HYMME_ISHIKAWA=JANNE/.!
ishikawa! ishikawa! ishikawa! ishikawa!
ishikawa -> jYOzAt METHOD_HYMME_ISHIKAWA=JANNE/.!
ishikawa! ishikawa! ishikawa! ishikawa!
いしかわ ぱす じょざっと めぞっど ひゅむ いしかわ じゃんぬ (ishikawa pasu jozatto mezoddo hyume ishikawa jannu - /iɕikawa/-/pas/-/dʑodzaQt/-/medzoQd/-/çəm/-/iɕikawa/-/dʑaɴ/)
イシカワァ!イシカワァ!イシカワァ!イシカワァ!(ishikawa ishikawa ishikawa ishikawa - /iɕikawa/-/iɕikawa/-/iɕikawa/-/iɕikawa/)

In this example, the phrase "jYOzAt METHOD_HYMME_ISHIKAWA_JANNE/." (I execute the Infel Phira Song Magic Ishikawa Janne upon you) was defined as the Function "ishikawa" and then was invoked four times. (However, it was ultimately just an example, as it wouldn't execute anything due to the Function calls all being terminated by exclamation points).

Nominalization[]

This is a method that allows the usage of an Emotion Verb as a subject or object. This is done by appending za za (ざ (za - /dza/) to the end of the verb. The suffix can be attached to the end of the verb, or separated by a space.

Example with the suffix attached directly to the Emotion Verb's end:

xE harr hLYEmEmErza wEwEjLYEnEcE ut sphaela/.
xE harr hLYEmEmErza wEwEjLYEnEcE ut sphaela/.
ぜ はるる ひりぇめめるざ うぇうぇじりぇねせ うとぅ すふぁいぇら (ze haruru hiriememeruza wewejiryenese utu sufayera - /dze/-/har/-/çiliememeɾdza/-/wewedʑilienese/-/utә/-/sɸajela/)
I'm happy that her joyful singing resounds to the world.

Example from METHOD_IMPLANTA/. showing the suffix separated from the Emotion Verb by a space:

wYAfA za rYAfrm 1001 Atitia_qejyu en vYAsk yor/.
wYAfA za rYAfrm 1001 Atitia_qejyu en vYAsk yor/.
うゃふぁ ざ りゃふるむ のいふぇふらのい あてぃてぃあけじぇう えン ヴゃすく よあ (wyafa za ryafurumu noi fefura noi atitia kejeu en vyasuku yoa - /wjafa/-/dza/-/ryafәɾm/-/noi/-/ɸeɸɾa/-/noi/-/atitia/-/kedʑeɯ/-/eɴ/-/bʲask/-/joa/
My wish is to show you the 1001 good hearts of the people, so you can experience them.
Hypothetical Sentences[]

The way a hypothetical sentence is formed in New Testament of Pastalie is as follows:

The "If" or conditional statement must be preceded by "Xc=", which is pronounced ゼク (zeku - /dzek/), and it must be immediately followed by a "->" and the statement resulting from these conditions being fulfilled.

Example:

Xc=hLYEmYEmArA -> cEzLYE hymmnos/.
Xc=hLYEmYEmArA -> cEzLYE hymmnos/.
ぜく ひりぇみぇまら ぱす しぇずりぇ ひゅむのす (zeku hiriemyemara pasu shezurye hyumunosu - /dzek/-/çilʲemiemaɾa/-/pas/-/ɕedzәlʲe/-/çәmnos/)
If I Sing, then I will become a Song.
Calling Previously Mentioned Elements[]

While referencing previously defined elements in a Song can be done through the usage of "vega" and "her" as it would be done in other languages, it is also possible to do so with a built-in element the New Testament of Pastalie provides, which is the "<-x" (<-x) construct.

This construct, pronounced as すぱぐ (supagu - /spak/), can be used to replace the subject or object in a sentence with a noun or phrase that was previously used in the Song, as long as it is done in the immediately following sentences.

Example from Waterway~MIO:

zz arhou, balduo, ujes, Oqejyu, xA rre <-x aYAuAkN kajya LYAglansee qejyu/.
zz arhou, balduo, ujes, Oqejyu, xA rre <-x aYAuAkN kajya LYAglansee qejyu/.
ず あーふー ばるどぅー ウジェス おけじぇう ざ るるれ すぱぐ あやうあくん かじゃ りゃぐらんぜぃ けじぇう (zu aahuu baruduu ujesu okejeu za rurure supagu ayauakun kaja ryaguranzi kejeu - /dzә/-/aːɸɯː/-/baldɯː/-/ɯdʑes/-/okedʑɯ/-/dza/-/re/-/spak/-ajaɯakɴ/-/kadʑa/-/lʲaglandzi/-/kedʑɯ/)
Despair, darkness, ill will, hated people... They are necessary as well.

Phonology[]

As it should be evident, the Emotion Verbs and the possibility of modifying the nouns and prepositions make the phonology of the New Testament of Pastalie quite mutable and difficult to grasp despite it having the same phonological basis used by Standard Hymmnos. Therefore, below is a summary of the changes the different letters undergo in sound depending on what sounds they have before or after them:

Letter Sound Letter Sound
A /a/ N /n/ if followed by a vowel, /ɴ/ if followed by a consonant, /ɲ/ if followed by Y. In the case of it being part of an Emotion Verb, the addition of a Level 2 Emotion Vowel changes it to /ɲ/, while the addition of a Level 3 Emotion Vowel changes it to /nә/.
B /b/ O /o/
C /k/ and /ɕ/. Changes to /tɕ/ if followed by an H. P /p/
D /d/ Q /kɯ/
E /e/ R /r/ at the beginning of words, /ɾ/ in all other positions. Changes to /rә/ when at the start of a word and followed by a Level 3 Emotion Sound, or /ɾә/ when positioned anywhere but the start of a word and followed by a Level 3 Emotion Sound.
F /ɸ/ S /s/. Changes to /ɕ/ when followed by an H or Y. Changes to /sә/ when followed by a Level 3 Emotion Sound.
G /g/ T /t/
H /h/. Changes to /ç/ when followed by an I or Y. It also changes to /ç/ when followed by a Level 2 or Level 3 Emotion Vowel. U /ɯ/
I /i/. Changes to /ç/ when preceded by an H. V /b/
J /dʑ/. Changes to /dʑә/ when followed by a Level 3 Emotion Vowel. W /ɰ/
K /k/ X /ks/ or /dz/.
L /l/. If followed by a Level 3 Emotion Vowel, a /ʔ/ or /ә/ may be added to be able to distinguish the Emotion Vowels from the base word. Y /j/. Becomes a /ʲ/ when preceded by any other consonant excepting the S, in which case it changes to /ɕ/, and the C, in which case it changes to /tɕ/.
M /m/. It changes to /mә/ if followed by a Level 3 Emotion Vowel. Z /dz/. It chagnes to /dzә/ if followed by a Level 3 Emotion Vowel.
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